U.S. tort law allows a person or a deceased individual’s family to take legal action against another party when that party acted negligently and caused them injury. Often referred to as personal injury law, tort law exists to provide a way for injured individuals to obtain compensation from those responsible for their injuries. This compensation comes in the form of monetary payments for both monetary and non-monetary losses suffered by the victim. In addition, when the party responsible for the injury acted in a particularly egregious manner, punitive damages may be applied. The goal of which is not only to provide the victim with compensation, but to also invoke an official punishment on the defendant for their actions.

Types of Damages

The losses from an injury or illness often are not limited to just the financial cost. Many people experience significant difficulties after they’ve been hurt which continue to cause them both emotional and psychological pain and a range of new obstacles in life. Based on both the concrete financial cost of the damage as well as the non-monetary losses, a court will grant the plaintiff a certain amount of money should he or she win the case. These individuals may be compensated for some of the following:

  • Lost Income from Missed Work
  • Medical Care Expenses
  • Rehabilitation Expenses
  • Ambulance Fees
  • Damaged Property
  • Physical Pain
  • Emotional Trauma
  • Damage to personal and intimate relationships
  • Loss of enjoyment or ability to engage in previous activities

Depending on the case and the work of the attorney on your behalf, compensation may end up being in the thousand or even millions. Compensation is typically higher when someone has suffered permanent damage to a part of their life because of their injuries.

If you or someone you love was injured due to another party’s negligence, a personal injury attorney may be able to help you obtain financial compensation for your damages. Your personal injury case is damaging to your physical and emotional state and you should be justly compensates for those damages.


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The birth control pill Yaz has been the first one that the Food and Drug Administration has approved as an alternative treatment to an extreme form of PMS, the premenstrual dysphoric disorder or PMDD. This mood disorder occurs during the menstrual cycle, often due to the fluctuating hormones during this period. Although some women do experience common symptoms of PMS and can handle them properly, there are those who experience extreme symptoms of PMS. About 3-5 percent of women suffer from PMDD, although the numbers can be more.

Among the most common symptoms of PMDD is depression. Mood swings, fatigue, irritability, food cravings (and eventual weigh gain), thoughts of hopelessness, headaches, hot flashes and heart palpitations are among the common symptoms PMDD. Seeing a doctor would greatly help in diagnosing whether you have PMDD, and if you are allowed to take Yaz for these symptoms. Yaz and PMDD have been linked together and with the birth control pill, handling PMDD seems to be easier.

Although symptoms of premenstrual dysphoric disorder are almost the same as those in PMS, the difference is that these symptoms can be uncompromising enough to significantly hinder, prevent or lower the quality of life (both on social and personal relationships), at home, work and school. The wavering hormones and the lower serotonin levels (the chemical which helps transmit nerve signals in the brain) are what scientists believe are the culprit behind PMS and PMDD, although further studies are still needed. It is because of this hormonal imbalance that makes Yaz a sensible option; taking artificial hormones to alleviate the symptoms of PMDD does make sense in a medical point of view.

According to the website of Williams Kherkher, the main issue with Yaz and PMDD is that Yaz can also heighten the risks of other health complications, such as stroke, thrombosis, and heart attacks. Yaz, and its sister birth control pill Yasmin, can also alter the effects of other drugs or medications that women are also taking, putting them at greater risk. Weighing the benefits and dangers with your doctor would be a better option than taking Yaz without a prescription.


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While many dogs fit the stereotype that they are “man’s best friend,” some dogs are naturally more aggressive than others. Even if aggressive tendencies are not bred into dogs, they can be raised to be more aggressive as well. It is an owner’s responsibility to control his or her dog, and its behaviors, at all times. If an owner cannot control the behavior of a dog and the dog attacks someone, that dog owner might have to pay the person who was attacked financial compensation.

Dogs can attack people or other animals for many reasons. In some cases, they get scared, or they become angry or feel threatened. However, in some cases, certain dog breeds are known to be more aggressive than others. In these cases, it is still up to an owner to know about its dog’s tendencies and to anticipate if it may become more aggressive.

Breeds to Watch Out For

According to the website of Ravid & Associates, P.C., not every dog will attack a person or another animal, but some dogs are bred to be more aggressive. Several dog breeds that might be more aggressive, and have a higher chance of attacking than others, include:

  • German Shepherds
  • Dobermans
  • Chow Chows
  • Rottweilers

These dogs can be much more aggressive than other dog breeds, and they might be more likely to hurt a person or another dog or animal. When he or she purchases a dog, every dog owner assumes a legal responsibility over that dog’s behavior. So if his or her dog attacks a person, a dog owner should be ready to meet the financial obligations that might come of a dog attack.

If you or someone you love has been hurt by an aggressive dog and you want to know more about your legal options, contact a qualified personal injury lawyer today.


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A porn actor recently tested positive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), prompting the adult film watchdog association to call for a halt on production until all performers are screened for the sexually-transmitted disease (STD).

Adult film performers may be engaging in extremely intimate acts on camera, but they are still professionals, and as such have a responsibility to other performers to ensure they are not being exposed to health risks. Cameron Bay, a porn actor since 2010, tested positive for HIV, a fact confirmed by the Free Speech Coalition (FSC) which oversees the health status of adult film performers.

Bay expressed the hope that she had not been instrumental in spreading the disease to her fellow performers. The film industry has conformed with the FSC moratorium and to date, it is unknown if the virus has been transmitted on set. Xander Corvus was Bay’s most recent sex partner but no other performers aside from Bay has tested positive for any STD including HIV.

This is not the first time that STD’s ugly head had reared in the adult film industry, causing production to come to a screeching halt. In 2012, a 42-year-old porn actor known as Mr. Marcus admitted that he falsified his syphilis test results so he could continue working. He was sentenced to 30 days in jail for knowingly exposing his co-performers to the risk of STD.

The Department of Public Health is being criticized by health organizations for not enforcing the Measure B regulation or the County of Los Angeles Safer Sex in the Adult Film Industry Act, which requires adult film actors to use condoms during shoots in Los Angeles. The regulation was passed in November 2012, and when challenged by adult film producers, was found constitutional by the federal courts.


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Freedom to Work, a national civil rights group, has filed a discrimination lawsuit against ExxonMobil for what it believes to be a breach of the Illinois Human Rights Act, the state’s ban on anti-LGBT workplace discrimination.

The group conducted an experiment to support its suit. In this exercise, the civil rights organization applied to an Exxon job posting using two fictitious resumes, one belonging to a straight woman of modest qualifications and the other belonging to a lesbian with excellent qualifications, better job skills, and more work experience. The lesbian’s resume listed membership in a LGBT group while the straight woman’s resume had membership in a feminist organization in its stead.

The company contacted the straight women repeatedly to offer her the position despite not receiving any reply. They did not contact the lesbian applicant.

Exxon claims it has a strong corporate anti-discrimination policy, but what the company has on its books is not specific. It has been resistant of instating a concrete anti-LGBT discrimination policy and the company is urging shareholders to vote against such a policy being put into effect at an upcoming meeting.


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